We Are Infinite.

Tuesday, February 25, 2014

In the past, mostly people interacted in groups having face-to- face relationships. Today, they are continuously exposed to messages generated from the centre.The history of mass media is comparatively recent. The oldest form is the press which was set up first by William Caxon at Westminster in 1476. The first wireless communication was made between the Isle of Wight and the English mainland in 1882, the phonograph was patented in 1877. The first cinema film was made in Paris in 1895.
In India, after the independence, new horizons were seen by the country in all the aspects of five year plans stressing the need to solve some of the national problems, such as, lack of cultural identity, absence of economic policy and so on, the development of mass media was boosted.The need for communicating with the masses and influencing them was felt in order to have the impact of the independence. This led to tremendous progress in the fields of print and the broadcast media.Freedom of speech and expression along with freedom of press was provided by the constitution as a fundamental right. Over and above, constitution also granted freedom of movement, right to profession and property, right to hold meetings and cultural gatherings.All these led to the unabated progress of mass media in the country.With the extending impact of media of mass communication on individuals and groups, the Indian society overall is reacting swiftly. The pervasive effects of the various media on the various spheres of the Indian life- economic, social, cultural, intellectual, religious and even moral values are transforming rapidly.Mass media are capable of creating various kinds of impact on mankind. They play a crucial role in the function and change of any society. A study of social change cannot be done without studying mass media. Therefore, in the present times when technology has brought about changes in the society, mass media studies have become important.
Mcluham, the Canadian writer perceives mass media in a very broad perspective. It is his thesis that, the medium is the message; he says that the content of a mass medium cannot be divorced from its context and from its technology.A statement made on television will be very different from a statement made through the press, the form and nature of the message's dissemination actually modifies the material.The visual image of television news involves us directly as compared to the news reported in the newspaper. Whether or not we discuss the wheel in the context of mass communication is a moot point, but it is obviously true that the wheel has changed many human societies in a way which is quite as radical as television or the press.He says that we have been too much pre occupied with the messages, or content, of mass media, and too little concerned with the media themselves, as they function within human society.The mass media constitute a powerful and pervading force in our lives. We are exposed daily to a bombardment of media messages. Most of the information we receive about our community, our state, the nation and the world comes to us through newspapers, magazines, television and radio.
The information and views communicated through these media have great impact on our attitudes toward people, events and problems. Mass media expose people to a flood of information almost narcotic sing reader, listener or viewer. Due to mass media the range and amount of information available to the people has vastly increased.Media confer a certain social status or people's position in society is enhanced when they appear upon television or are mentioned in the press. Mass media like films, television and press have particular glamour, which is enjoyed by those who are in them.Thus, mass media tend to enforce and corroborate social norms and bring personal attitudes and public morality closer.Mass media are common denominators. They serve the interest of the larger groups.
Media consumers are selective in their consumption of media output. They accept the messages which are easy for them to understand and they do not have to exert themselves in watching a programme or reading a newspaper. They also accept messages which reinforce their beliefs and reject or ignore those which have contrary views.Another criticism about the impact of mass media is that they do not keep pace with the changes that are taking place in society and usually maintain stereotyped roles and values. For example, widow woman in today's society wear dresses of all types and colors but films and television serials show them in their stereotyped white dress with no jwellery.Thus, mass communication process is more likely to sustain rather than challenge the existing political and social power structure in society.As a result, mass media look for supportive Communication and avoid that communication which projects alternative opinions. Mass media play a significant role in the socialization of the young. An extensive exposure necessarily influences young, who are always believed to be passive respondents.
Watz and Hoffman note that: "the social potential of mass communication has hardly been tapped". Effective use of the mass media has the potential for increasing the public's understanding of the goals of development programs and activities of development workers.It can increase public support for development programs and it can have a significant impact on the decisions of development planners, policy makers, and legislators that affect these programmes.It can help people function better in the community, by providing information that can support the coping capacities of persons under stress and consequently, it can significantly expand the impact of the development programmes in any community.A much wider range of target groups can be reached, not only those who might benefit from the programmes but also persons and groups that may be willing to provide tangible and intangible support for these development efforts, as a result of being better informed about them .Mass media in India are actively involved in the tasks related to different aspects of national development and they are assisting government and the masses in social, economic and political development. Thus, mass media have contributed to the mobilization of human resources for national development.The mobilizing of human resources requires a great deal of attention of what the population knows and thinks of national development, and especially to the encouragement of the attitudes and social customs and the provision of knowledge, which will be favourable to the development, the mass media have undertaken the job quite competently.It is evident from the tremendous changes that have taken place in the entire range of human activity in the country. Research studies by communication scholars also have proved that mass media have immensely aided and assisted the rate and score of development.
The studies conducted by Shramm, Rao and others have shown that the interaction between the media and the society from development point of view is 'constant and cumulative.'This helps people to set common goals of development and arrive at sound consensus. Media have communicated to the people about country's five year plans, development programmes, education system etc. and this has motivated people to become partners in the progress of the country.
The farm technology was communicated to the rural masses through mass communication media such as radio and films which became link between university laboratories and farmers.
This contributed to tremendous agricultural progress and ushered in green revolution in the country. There have been problems and constraints in the process of development but, on the whole, mass media in India have immensely contributed to bringing about change and development in India.
It has been realized that no significant development can take place without using mass media.
In other words, the mass media can have impact on a variety of important development programmes, relations, public education, and prevention functions of the development programmes.
It has also been observed that as the time devoted to media increases, people's participation in an organized action decreases. As a result, they remain away from the decision making and action for any personal or national development activities.
Mass media do not involve the individual directly. They bring changes largely in the psychological domain. They capture the audience by changing their opinions, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and value systems.Psychological changes are considered to be more effective as compared to the change which is introduced directly into the social structure by means of law and government policies to which individuals are forced to adjust.The new media have brought about changes in the old media for example, due to the impact of television, newspapers and magazines have become more illustrative, radio has been trying to become more innovative in attracting the listeners, advertising has become part of every mass medium and so on.Moreover, due to the review of the programmes offered by every medium, competition to offer more and more interesting programmes of common taste has increased among the mass media.What about education? Mass media in India such as television, radio, newspaper, try to offer educational and enrichment messages for farmers, school children, youth, woman, and other groups. This again may be due to the competition among and within the media.Folk media have been very effective in promoting the message of literacy, mobilizing women and bringing them together to discuss issues related to their everyday lives. Street plays have proved very effective in integrating and mobilizing women for anti-arrack movement in Andhra Pradesh.
Sometimes too much of exposure to information leads people to saturation. For example, if we are exposed to the events of terrorism in Kashmir or Punjab for a very long period, we become less sensitive to the sufferings of people due to terrorism. Here the immediacy of visual image is lost and media ceases to be an informant.Mass medium like television has made great impact on the families by changing the way of life. In the last ten years Indian family has under gone drastic changes as far as family relations standard of living, style of living and buying habits are concerned.
To sum up, mass media create impact by playing their role as change agent, reflector and reinforcer of dominant values and attitudes in society which can have a significant impact on the decisions of development planners, policy makers and legislators that affect development programmes.

Article courtsey:www.studymode.com

Friday, February 21, 2014

Nelson Mandela, who died on December 5, 2013, had spent more than a quarter of his life serving time in various jails. While behind bars for the 27-year period between 1962 and 1980, the anti-apartheid revolutionary educated both himself and others to prepare for the advent of multiracial equality in South Africa. During his confinement at the Robben Island prison, Mandela studied law by correspondence at the University of London, learned Afrikaans to foster a rapport with jailhouse wardens, and was instrumental in launching the “University of Robben Island”, where prisoners possessing expertise in particular fields presented lectures to their fellow inmates.
Mandela’s stay, however, was frequently marred by demeaning and deplorable treatment. Initially, black prisoners were humiliated by being given shorts, commonly worn by children, rather than full-length pants as uniforms. Mandela was also forbidden from wearing sunglasses when forced to labor at a limestone quarry, and the harsh reflections from the rocks damaged his vision. The quarry dust also damaged his tear ducts, which made it impossible for him to cry until receiving corrective surgery in 1994. Perhaps the most painful moments arrived in the late 1960s, when Mandela lost his mother and firstborn son, and was denied permission to attend their funerals.In spite of these ordeals, Mandela persevered.
In an interview with Charlie Rose, Morgan Freeman discusses Mandela’s reliance on William Ernest Henley’s 1875 poem, “Invictus,” to keep his hope alive:
“That poem was his favorite… When he lost courage, when he felt like just giving up — just lie down and not get up again — he would recite it. And it would give him what he needed to keep going.”
Freeman, who played Mandela in the 2009 film Invictus, also provides a solemn and dignified recitation of the poem. Although the poem is best known for providing succor to Mandela in times of despair, its words of courage have served as inspiration to countless others. Famous figures who have drawn hope from “Invictus” include the father of Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi during his struggle for Burmese independence and tennis champion Andre Agassi. Rumor has it that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was also quite fond of it.


Out of the night that covers me,
Black as the Pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.
In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.
Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.
It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll.
I am the master of my fate:
I am the captain of my soul.

This poem has served as a great inspiration to me whole my life,i hope it does the same for you.

(courtsey www.openculture.com)

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Almost everyone agrees that “Hotel California” by the Eagles is an absolute classic song, but people aren’t quite as sure over what it’s about. There are a multitude of theories surrounding the subject matter of “Hotel California,” only one of which has been confirmed by the band as true. However, a solid case can be made for some of the alternate interpretations. Even if they aren’t “official,” they’re still interesting,I’ll look at the lyrics (and beyond) through a different lens, giving support for the many different ways of looking at the song.
I want to take a look at one of the most controversial interpretations of the lyrics. According to some people (mostly Evangelical Christians), “Hotel California” is secretly about Satanism. Is it? Let’s take a look at the reasons for this claim:
1. Supposedly there was a Christian church in California (or on a California Street, depending where you look) that was abandoned in 1969. Later a group of Satan worshippers took over the building, converting it into a Satanic worship place. Followers of this theory point to the lyric “we haven’t had that spirit here since nineteen sixty nine” (the “spirit” being the Spirit of Jesus Christ, which left with the Christians in 1969). It’s also interesting to note that the “The Satanic Bible” was first published in 1969. Some people even refer to the lyric before that line (“So I called up the captain, ‘please bring me my wine’”) as evidence that the Eagles were referring to the blood of Christ, symbolically portrayed in Communion rituals as wine.
2. “The master” referred to in the lyrics could be referencing Anton LaVey, leader of the Church of Satan, and supposed owner of this Satanic worship center.
2. The lyric “This could be Heaven or this could be Hell” sets a religious tone and invokes a feeling of moral ambiguity, as one might feel when being tempted.
3. The lyric “They just can’t kill the beast,” in which the “beast” is either Satan, as he is referred to in the Bible, or well-known occult figure Aleister Crowley, who went by the nickname “the beast.”
4. The lyric “What a nice surprise, bring your alibis,” which refers to the way many Satanists would lie about their allegiance to Church of Satan.
5. The lyrics “We are all just prisoners here, of our own device” and “You can check out at any time you like, but you can never leave” seem to refer to people who have taken a binding oath, which Church of Satan members were rumored to have done.
5. This wouldn’t be the only time the Eagles had used dark religious themes in their music. One of their other songs is called “Have a Good Day in Hell,” and they have a live album called Hell Freezes Over.
6. One of the most convincing arguments of the Satanism theory involves the imagery on the album jacket itself. In this photo, which can be seen on the jacket, pay close attention to the middle window sitting above the crowd of people:
A small, shadowy figure can be seen overlooking the party. When you take a closer look at it…

… the bald-headed face resembles Anton LaVey’s! I’ve read that the person up on the balcony was actually just a woman the band hired for the photo, but why would she stand up there, mysteriously?
7. Take a look at the back cover of the album:

There’s one lone person in this photo – a janitor sweeping up after the party, one would assume. Not according to the people who are convinced “Hotel California” is about Satanism. There are two theories concerning the janitor – the first is that he is actually a dead body being propped up by a mop. (Some people even take this farther, claiming he was sacrificed by LaVey himself.) The second theory is that when the band took the photo, they thought they had captured the image of an empty hotel lobby. Only when they got the picture developed did they see the image of the janitor appear, making him some kind of ghost.
As you can probably imagine, there’s no real evidence to back any of this up.
8. And finally, in a move that seems way too direct to be true, supposedly Don Henley, one of the writers of the song, said in an interview, “We made the whole thing up as a symbol. The song’s just about Satanism. I don’t know why people have to twist its meaning all up.” I can’t find any convincing record of this, however.
So, is “Hotel California” really about Satanism? I don’t think so. Many of these highly imaginative rumors have no evidence behind them, and the band has denied that the song was about Anton LaVey’s pseudo-religion. However, some people to this day hold to the belief that the Eagles were secretly trying to convert the masses into devil worshippers with this song. Now you can at least understand where they’re coming from, right?

                                                                                                      (courtsey: snippingsounds.net)

Saturday, February 15, 2014

This article is not about my parents,your or anyone else parents,its that I could not come out with a good and interesting title so this funny one struck.Few days back I was going through an article in THE TIMES OF INDIA ,it was about teen migrating to newer social networking sites like twitter,instagram from facebook and they called it THE LEVIS EFFECT. The title was suprisingly catching and Levis???? isnt it a fashion brand and how its connected to social networking migration.The article was based on the reports that in 2013 twitter took over facebook as the largest social networking site and how teens mostly ageing between 18-19 years are massly attracted towards other sites. The report says that in 2012 the average age of the people login to facebook was 18 but in 2013 it jumped shockinlgy to 31.Its that now a days most parents are taking the help of facebook to monitor over their lads and thus this increase in number is forcing their children to opt. for other alternative.Most of the analyst compare this situation to what exactly happened with jeans. During the 80's when jeans were introduced into market it became a craze, a hit among the teens,wearing a levis jeans was cool and was a style statement in itself.Slowly as years rolled wearing jeans were not cool anymore.Parents and their children all started using it,jeans which were once exclusive to the boys and girls were now used by their parents too.Thus to come up with something unique teens started looking for alternative like the shorts,cargos etc.Now the same thing is happening again but in a digitised manner.
Though badly framed but I guess it wont stop you in sharing it...........
For more on Levis Effect